Best Diets For People With Diabetes
Are you looking for the best diet for people with diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that requires both medical and lifestyle management. Eating the right foods and following a healthy diet can help you control your blood sugar levels and reduce your risk of diabetes–related complications. Eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient–dense foods, limiting added sugar, and limiting unhealthy fats is essential for people with diabetes.
In this post, we’ll discuss some of the best diets for people with diabetes, including the DASH diet, the Mediterranean diet, and the keto diet. We’ll also discuss what to eat and what to avoid when you have diabetes. Finally, we’ll provide tips to help you get started on a diabetes–friendly diet. Read on to learn more about the best diets for people with diabetes.
What is Diabetes Diet?
A diabetes diet simply means eating the healthiest foods in moderate amounts and sticking to regular mealtimes. A diabetes diet is a healthy-eating plan that’s naturally rich in nutrients and low in fat and calories. Key elements are fruits, vegetables and whole grains. In fact, a diabetes diet is the best eating plan for most everyone.
Why do you need to develop a healthy-eating plan?
If you have diabetes or prediabetes, your doctor will likely recommend that you see a dietitian to help you develop a healthy-eating plan. The plan helps you control your blood sugar (glucose), manage your weight and control heart disease risk factors, such as high blood pressure and high blood fats.
When you eat extra calories and fat, your body creates an undesirable rise in blood glucose. If blood glucose isn’t kept in check, it can lead to serious problems, such as a high blood glucose level (hyperglycemia) that, if persistent, may lead to long-term complications, such as nerve, kidney and heart damage.
You can help keep your blood glucose level in a safe range by making healthy food choices and tracking your eating habits.
For most people with type 2 diabetes, weight loss also can make it easier to control blood glucose and offers a host of other health benefits. If you need to lose weight, a diabetes diet provides a well-organized, nutritious way to reach your goal safely.
What does a diabetes diet involve?
A diabetes diet is based on eating three meals a day at regular times. This helps you better use the insulin that your body produces or gets through a medication.
A registered dietitian can help you put together a diet based on your health goals, tastes and lifestyle. He or she can also talk with you about how to improve your eating habits, such as choosing portion sizes that suit the needs for your size and activity level.
Recommended Diabetes Diet Foods
Make your calories count with these nutritious foods. Choose healthy carbohydrates, fiber-rich foods, fish and “good” fats.
During digestion, sugars (simple carbohydrates) and starches (complex carbohydrates) break down into blood glucose. Focus on healthy carbohydrates, such as:
- Whole grains
- Legumes, such as beans and peas
- Low-fat dairy products, such as milk and cheese
Avoid less healthy carbohydrates, such as foods or drinks with added fats, sugars and sodium.
Dietary fiber includes all parts of plant foods that your body can’t digest or absorb. Fiber moderates how your body digests and helps control blood sugar levels. Foods high in fiber include:
- Legumes, such as beans and peas
- Whole grains
Eat heart-healthy fish at least twice a week. Fish such as salmon, mackerel, tuna and sardines are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which may prevent heart disease.
Avoid fried fish and fish with high levels of mercury, such as king mackerel.
Foods containing monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats can help lower your cholesterol levels. These include:
- Canola, olive and peanut oils
But don’t overdo it, as all fats are high in calories.
Best diets for people with diabetes
No single diet offers more benefits to a person with diabetes than another. However, it is believed that low carb diets may be useful. Some people may try this with or in place of medical treatment, according to their doctor’s guidance.
A low carb diet can help reduce cravings, lower blood sugar levels, and boost energy. It may also help people with diabetes maintain a moderate weight.
The ketogenic, or “keto” diet, is very low in carbs. It allows for a maximum of 30 grams (g) of carbs each day. This may help people with diabetes improve glycemic control and maintain a moderate weight. It may also reduce the risk of diabetes in people who do not have the condition.
With its focus on fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains and moderate amounts of fish and dairy, this diet is not only great for managing diabetes, but it might even help prevent it. In fact, one study of 25,000 overweight, female health care providers found those who followed the Mediterranean diet had a 30% lower risk of developing diabetes 20 years later.
Other studies suggest this diet might improve fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1C levels in people with type 2 diabetes, result in a 83% lower chance of developing diabetes and help prevent diabetes among those at high cardiovascular risk
With the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet’s low-sodium approach, its chief goal is to improve heart health, making it a great option for people with diabetes, who are prone to cardiovascular problems. In fact, those with diabetes have a higher risk of developing hypertension (two out of three people with diabetes have the condition). The DASH diet is known for promoting blood pressure control, and it’s rich in magnesium—which can help with insulin resistance and blood sugar control. Recommended food includes Grains; Lean meat, poultry and fish; Fruits and vegetables.
Vegetarian or vegan diets
A more restrictive form of vegetarianism, the vegan diet bypasses animal-derived foods and focuses on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes and nuts. As mentioned above, research links meat intake to an increased risk of developing diabetes, and the American Society for Nutrition reports that vegan diets may be effective for treating and managing type 2 diabetes, as they can improve glycemic control and body weight.
Planning here is key, though, as vegan diets may require the supplementation of certain vitamins and minerals. Recommended food includes Fruits and vegetables; Soy; Legumes and nuts; Whole grains.
Foods to avoid as Diabetes Person
Diabetes increases your risk of heart disease and stroke by accelerating the development of clogged and hardened arteries. Foods containing the following can work against your goal of a heart-healthy diet.
- Saturated fats: Avoid high-fat dairy products and animal proteins such as butter, beef, hot dogs, sausage and bacon. Also limit coconut and palm kernel oils.
- Trans fats: Avoid trans fats found in processed snacks, baked goods, shortening and stick margarines.
- Cholesterol: Cholesterol sources include high-fat dairy products and high-fat animal proteins, egg yolks, liver, and other organ meats. Aim for no more than 200 milligrams (mg) of cholesterol a day.
- Sodium: Aim for less than 2,300 mg of sodium a day. Your doctor may suggest you aim for even less if you have high blood pressure.
Creating a Diabetes Diet Plan
You may use a few different approaches to create a diabetes diet to help you keep your blood glucose level within a normal range. With a dietitian’s help, you may find that one or a combination of the following methods works for you:
The plate method
The American Diabetes Association offers a simple method of meal planning. In essence, it focuses on eating more vegetables. Follow these steps when preparing your plate:
- Fill half of your plate with non-starchy vegetables, such as spinach, carrots and tomatoes.
- Fill a quarter of your plate with a protein, such as tuna, lean pork or chicken.
- Fill the last quarter with a whole-grain item, such as brown rice, or a starchy vegetable, such as green peas.
- Include “good” fats such as nuts or avocados in small amounts.
- Add a serving of fruit or dairy and a drink of water or unsweetened tea or coffee.
Because carbohydrates break down into glucose, they have the greatest impact on your blood glucose level. To help control your blood sugar, you may need to learn to calculate the amount of carbohydrates you are eating so that you can adjust the dose of insulin accordingly. It’s important to keep track of the amount of carbohydrates in each meal or snack.
A dietitian can teach you how to measure food portions and become an educated reader of food labels. He or she can also teach you how to pay special attention to serving size and carbohydrate content.
If you’re taking insulin, a dietitian can teach you how to count the amount of carbohydrates in each meal or snack and adjust your insulin dose accordingly.
Choose your foods
A dietitian may recommend you choose specific foods to help you plan meals and snacks. You can choose a number of foods from lists including categories such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
One serving in a category is called a “choice.” A food choice has about the same amount of carbohydrates, protein, fat and calories — and the same effect on your blood glucose — as a serving of every other food in that same category. For example, the starch, fruits and milk list includes choices that are 12 to 15 grams of carbohydrates.
Some people who have diabetes use the glycemic index to select foods, especially carbohydrates. This method ranks carbohydrate-containing foods based on their effect on blood glucose levels. Talk with your dietitian about whether this method might work for you.
A Sample Diabetes Diet Menu
When planning meals, take into account your size and activity level. The following menu is tailored for someone who needs 1,200 to 1,600 calories a day.
- Breakfast. Whole-wheat bread (1 medium slice) with 2 teaspoons jelly, 1/2 cup shredded wheat cereal with a cup of 1 percent low-fat milk, a piece of fruit, coffee
- Lunch. Roast beef sandwich on wheat bread with lettuce, low-fat American cheese, tomato and mayonnaise, medium apple, water
- Dinner. Salmon, 1 1/2 teaspoons vegetable oil, small baked potato, 1/2 cup carrots, 1/2 cup green beans, medium white dinner roll, unsweetened iced tea, milk
- Snack. 2 1/2 cups popcorn with 1 1/2 teaspoons margarine
What are the results of a diabetes diet?
Embracing your healthy-eating plan is the best way to keep your blood glucose level under control and prevent diabetes complications. And if you need to lose weight, you can tailor it to your specific goals.
Aside from managing your diabetes, a diabetes diet offers other benefits, too. Because a diabetes diet recommends generous amounts of fruits, vegetables and fiber, following it is likely to reduce your risk of cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer. And consuming low-fat dairy products can reduce your risk of low bone mass in the future.
Are there any risks in taking Diabetes Diet?
If you have diabetes, it’s important that you partner with your doctor and dietitian to create an eating plan that works for you. Use healthy foods, portion control and scheduling to manage your blood glucose level. If you stray from your prescribed diet, you run the risk of fluctuating blood sugar levels and more-serious complications.
When it comes to managing diabetes, the best diet is one that is balanced and tailored to meet individual needs. Everyone with diabetes should work closely with a healthcare provider to create a meal plan that meets their needs. Eating a variety of nutrient–dense foods and limiting simple carbohydrates can help make managing diabetes easier.
Additionally, making lifestyle changes such as increasing physical activity and avoiding smoking can help reduce the risk of diabetes–related health complications. With a little bit of planning and commitment, people with diabetes can enjoy a healthy, balanced diet that helps them manage their diabetes.
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